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(Through their discovery, arts, culture, professionalism, religious
dedication, etc. Prior  to 1900)

BOITO,  ARRIGO (1842- )
      An Italian composer, born in Padua. The son of cultured parents, his
father was na Italian painter and his mother a Polish woman, a parentage
which is supposed to account for the blending of southern and northern
temperament in his artistic nature. He entered the Milan Conservatory in
1856. Mefistofele was produced on March 5, 1868, at La Scala, Milan.In this
country Mefistofele was produced at the Metropolitan Opera House, New York,
in 1883, with Campanini and Nilsson. A noteworthy revival occurred at the
same house in 1896, and another in 1901.

BOTTA,  VINCENZO  (1818-94)
      An Italian American educator. He was born in Piedmont, Italy, was
educated at the University of Turin, became a professor there, was elected
to the Sardinian Parliament in 1849 and was appointed commissioner to
examine the German educational system in 1850. He came to the United States
for the same purpose in 1853, and soon afterwards was naturalized and
appointed professor of Italian language and literature in the University of
the City of New York. He remained in this position till his death. His best
known works are: Account of the System of Education in Piedmont;  Character
and Policy of Cavour (1862); Dante as a Philosopher, Patriot, and Poet

BOUVIER,  JOHN (1787-1851)
      An American jurist. He was born at Codogno, Italy, but his family
emigrated to America when he was very young, and he was brought up in
Philadelphia. In 1822 he began to practice law there, and in 1838 became
associate judge of the Court of Criminal Sessions. Among his publications
are a valuable "Law Dictionary Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the
United States of America, and of the Several States of the American Union
(1839);" a new edition of Bacon's Abridgment of the Law (1841); and The
Institutes of American Law (1851), his greatest work.

      An Italian Jesuit missionary among the Indians of Canada. In 1644 he
was sent to the Huron country, but was captured and tortured by the
Iroquois. After great suffering he was sent to the Dutch Settlements at Fort
Orange (Albany), whence he was ransomed for a large sum. He returned to
France, but came back to resume his missionary work in 1645, and labored
among the Hurons until 1650, when, broken in health, he returned to Italy.
He published "Relazione dei missionari della campagnia de Gesu nella
Nuova-Francia (1653), an English translation of which appeared in Montreal in 1852.

      An Italian tenor, born in Naples. He received an excellent musical
training, at first in piano, and later in singing. He appeared with great
success in concert and opera, in Paris, London, and the principal cities of
Europe; then came to the United States, under Strakosch, in 1855, and for a
quarter of a century was one of the most popular operatic tenors. He sang
with Patti at her debut, and appeared with all the great singers of his
time-Parepa Rosa, La Grange, Tietjens and Nilsson among them. Brignoli's
voice was a true tenor of beautiful quality, great carrying power and
wonderful flexibility. His vocalization and phrasing were of the highest
order, but he lacked grace in figure, and was a poor actor. He received high
prices for his singing. He died in New York.

      An Italian historical painter, born in Rome. He studied in Rome, and
painted frescoes in the Vatican under Gregory XVI., besides adorning many
palaces of his native city. When Rome was occupied by the French in 1849 he
came to America, and was naturalized in the United States, in 1852. The
first frescoes  painted in America were the work of his hand, and may be
seen in the Capitol in Washington. They represent scenes from American
history (illustrating the career of Washington), he also decorated churches
in Philadelphia. He died in Washington.

CABOT, JOHN (1450-98)
      An Italian navigator sailing under the English flag. His native name
was Giovanni Caboto, and he was born in Genoa. He removed to Venice at an
early age, acquired citizenship there and traded thence to all the important
Mediterranean ports. About 1490 he removed to England, and settled in
Bristol.  Sailed in May, 1497, and on June 24, after a rough passage, landed
on the North American coast, probably near Cape Breton. He returned to
England, where he landed on August 10, and was rewarded by the King with the
post of Great Admiral. He began immediately to prepare for a second voyage,
with the purpose of exploring and colonizing the new found land. Several
Bristol merchants cooperated to fit out a fleet, equipped with everything
needed for the complete exploitation of a new country. Cabot set sail with
five vessels in the spring of 1498. One of the ships put back and landed on
the Irish coast, whence the crew returned to England with the news that the
fleet had run into a severe storm, which had forced them to make for land.
No further news was ever received of the fate of the discoverer or of his
expedition. A number of early narratives, which are sometimes said to to
refer to this 1498 voyage, speak of Cabot as sailing along the whole North
American coast, from Florida to Newfoundland.

CAMPANINI,  ITALO (1846-96).
      An Italian tenor, born in Parma. He enlisted in the army of Garibaldi
when 14 years of age, and took part in the fight before Milazzo. Having
discovered during the campaign that he had a fine voice, he studied singing
in Parma, and made his first appearance as the notary in La Sonnambula in
his native town. He sang with indifferent success in various opera companies
until 1869. In 1873 sang with Christine Nilsson in New York. He was heard in
the United States during several subsequent seasons and became the most
popular operatic tenor of his day in the country. Endowed with a true tenor
voice of great power and sweetness, he was equally equipped to sing lyric
and dramatic parts; but he shone especially in roles demanding manly passion
and fervor. In later years, partly owing to an affliction of the throat, his
voice failed; but his fine method of producing it and his intelligent
singing and acting kept him high in popular favor until a few years before
his death.

CERACCHI,  GIUSEPPE (c1760-1802)
      An Italian sculptor. He was born in Corsica, and early moved to Rome,
where he acquired consideraable reputation. In 1772 he went to England,
where he was on terms of friendship with Sir Joshua Reynolds, whose bust he
modeled. He afterwards came to America and made busts of Washington (in the
Boston Athenaeum), Hamilton, and other statesmen.

      An Italian economist. He was born in Milan, and took part in the
Italian Revolution of 1848 . Owing to his denunciation of socialism, his
life was in great peril from communists in 1871. He visited the United
States in 1877, and delivered many addresses on economic questions,
championing the cause of bimetallism. Among his works are:
Mecanique de L'echange (1865); Contre le billet de banque (1866) Illusions
des societes cooperatives (1866); Or et argent (1874).

      An Italo-American archaeologist. He was born near Turin, Italy, was
educated at the Royal Military Academy there, and served in the Sardinian
Army during the war against Austria in 1849. He came to New York in 1860
where he engaged in teaching languages. He volunteered for service at the
outbreak of the Civil War and as colonel of the Fourth New York Cavalry,
took part in many engagements until June, 1863, when he was wounded and
taken prisoner. At the close of the war he was brevetted brigadier-general
and was naturalized. He then spent some time in making a valuable
archaeological collection, which in 1873 became the property of the
Metropolitan Museum of Art, in New York City. Five years later he was
appointed director of that institution.

     The discoverer of America. Columbus was born in 1445 or 1446. The best
authorities surmise that his birth took place in the village of Terrarossa,
near Genoa, to which city his father, Domenico Columbus, removed about 1451,
in order to be nearer the centre of the wool trade, from which he derived
his livelihood. He was early apprenticed to his father's trade, and is
referred to in legal documents dated 1472 and 1473 as living in Genoa or
Lavona, and engaged in the wool trade. He probably left home and went to sea
in 1473, visiting various Mediterranean ports and eventually reaching
Lisbon, where he lived until 1484 or 1485. Columbus's interest in
cartography explains his writing a letter concerning the shape of the earth
to the learned Italian Toscanelli, accompanying it with one of his globes to
illustrate his queries.In 1484-85, Columbus went to Spain, where he was
known as Cristobal Colon..
      During the next five years Columbus was in constant attendance about
the Spanish Court, practicing his profession of cartographer and seeking to
gain the royal interest in his plans. On August 3, 1492, everything was
ready and Columbus, on the carack Santa Maria, accompanied by the caravels
Nina and Pinta, sailed from Palos.

DA  PONTE,  LORENZO  (1749-1838)
      An Italian librettist, born at Ceneda, near Venice, and for many years
a resident of New York City. In 1805 he emigrated to New York, where he
taught Italian, and in 1828 was appointed professor of that language in
Columbia College.

DUSE,  ELEONORA (1859--)
      An Italian actress, born at Vigevano, on the border of Piedmont and
Lombardy. Hers was a family of actors, her grandfather having founded the
Garibaldi Theatre in Padua, and she appeared on the stage when thirteen
years old. Her American debut she made in January,1893 as Camille, at the
Fifth Avenue Theatre in New York City. Her art is distinguished for its
simplicity, yet subtle intensity of expression. Discarding many of the
customary mannerisms of the stage, she gained her extraordinary dramatic
power by the abandonment of much that is conventional but unreal in modern acting.

FAGNANI,  JOSEPH  (1819-1873)
      An Italian painter. He was born in Naples, Italy, studied in Vienna
and Paris, and came to the United States with Sir Henry Bulwer in 1849. He
painted a series of portraits of the most beautiful women of New York,
called "The Nine Muses," which are now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art,New York.

Source:   The New International Encyclopaedia
Publisher:   Dodd, Mead and Company-New York
Copyright:  1902-1905   Total of 21 volumes

     Researched and Transcribed by Miriam Medina