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           General Historical Information Prior to 1927

          First publication was October, 1725, by William Bradford..
Although his was the first New York newspaper, it may be recalled that a
copy of the "London Gazette" was issued in New York in 1696.  Bradford's
"Gazette" was printed on a half sheet of foolscap size and there is a large
volume of the "Gazette" in a good shape of preservation in the New York
Society Library, and a smaller file in the New York Historical Society

      Eight years after the establishment of Bradford's "Gazette" the New
York "Weekly Journal" was begun in 1733 by John Peter Zenger. In1734 Zenger
was imprisoned in the first important libel suit in New York.

        In 1743 soon after Bradford had relinquished the "Gazette" its
publication was resumed by James Parker as "The New York Gazette and Weekly
Post Boy."  William Wayman joined him as a partner ten years later, and
having published an article reflecting upon the people of Ulster and Orange
counties in March, 1756, the Assembly directed its sergeant-at-arms to take
both editors into custody. The editors acknowledged their fault, begged
pardon of the House, paid the costs of the proceedings, and gave the name of
the author of the article. He proved to be the Rev. Hezekiah Watkins, a
missionary to the county of Ulster, residing at Newburgh. He was arrested
and brought to New York, and voted guilty of high misdemeanor and contempt
of the authority of the House. The clergyman also begged the House's pardon,
stood to receive its reprimand and on paying the fees and promising not to
offend again, received his discharge from custody.

          The oldest of the surviving newspapers in New York City, which was
started as an organ of the Federalists under the immediate patronage of
Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and their political associates. First
issue November 16, 1801. City inhabitants were 60,000. William Coleman,
first proprietor and editor. Change in ownership, 1881, when Henry Villard
purchased the paper and placed it under the editorial direction of General
Carl Shurz, Horace White and E. L. Godkin. Thomas W. Lamont, member of the
firm of J.P. Morgan & Company, purchased the paper in 1921 placing its
management in the hands of Edwin F. Gay, a former harvard professor. On
January 1, 1924, Cyrus H. K. Curtis, of Philadelphia, bought the "New York
Evening Post," made it a five cent paper, and returned its editorial support
to the Republican Party.

          In 1752 the " The NewYork Mercury" was founded by Hugh Gaine, on
Hanover Square at the sign of the "Bible and Crown," and became the best
newspaper of the colonies. In 1763 its title was changed to "The New York
Gazette and Weekly Mercury," and in the same year its editor was arraigned
before the Assembly for having inaccurately, and without permission,
published its proceedings. He apologized, was reprimanded, and then

      This was begun by Wayman, the former associate of Parker. In 1766
Wayman was arrested and imprisoned for contempt of the Assembly, because of
two typographical errors in printing the speech of Sir Henry Moore, at that
time the Governor of the colony. One of these errors substituted the word
never for
ever, by reason of which the meaning was reversed. The Assembly was
indignant in this case, from the suspicion entertained that the error was

          This was published during the years 1751-52, and then died.

          This was established in 1763 and published by Samuel Loudon. Soon
after its publication it was changed from a weekly to a daily, and was
continued for several years. It was in existence as late as 1793 under the
name of "The Diary, or Loudon's Register."

          This was published and edited by Shepard Kollock, was started
prior to the Revolution, and lasted till 1784.

          In 1766 John Holt established the "New York Journal, or General
Advertiser," which in the course of the same year was united with "Parker's
Gazette." John Holt edited the first Whig newspaper published in New York
City, and managed it with considerable ability and courage. Differing from
the case of Gaine, his patriotism did not rise and fall as danger approached
or receded from the city. Holt maintained his policy of fidelity to his
country to the last, tempering his stand with prudence. When the British
forces took possession of New York he removed to Kingston, then to
Poughkeepsie and published his "Journal" there until the peace of 1783, when
he returned to New York and resumed the publication of his paper, under the
title of the "Independent Gazette or the New York Journal Revived."  Holt
did not long survive the achievement of his country's freedom- a result for
which he had long labored. He fell a victim to the yellow fever on the 30th
of January, 1784.
          Mrs. Holt continued her husband's paper until 1785, publishing it,
however, only once a week. Eleazar Oswald her kinsman, who had been a
colonel in the American Army, took charge of the paper for her from 1785 to
1786, after which he printed it in his own name, Mrs. Holt receiving a
proportion of the profits. In January, 1787, Mrs. Holt and Oswald sold the
paper together with their printing office to Thomas Greenleaf.

          Thomas Greenleaf who soon after this change of proprietorship , on
January, 1787 established two papers. The one intended for city circulation
was called "The New York Journal and Daily Patriotic Register"; the other
with the same title, was published weekly, on Thursday, for the country. The
titles of these papers were afterwards changed- the daily being called the
"Argus," or "Greenleaf's New Daily Advertiser"; and "Greenleaf's New York
Journal and Patriotic Register," which was published twice a week. was, in
fact, the first Democratic organ in the country. Mrs. Greenleaf, after her
husband's death, published both the daily and the semi-weekly papers for
some time, but finally disposed of them and of her entire printing
establishment to James Cheetham, an Englishman.

          James Cheetham, an Englishman,  at once altered the titles of both
papers--the daily to the "American Citizen," and the semi-weekly to the
"American Watchman." These papers flourished from 1801 to 1810. They were
edited with marked ability by Cheetham. Cheetham was an able editor, and
acquired great distinction as a writer. He was often involved in political
disputes. One of these leading him, in 1794, to challenge William Coleman,
then editor of the "Evening Post."

(became later Rivington's New York Gazette and Universal Advertiser)
      James Rivington began his newspaper in 1773, under the rather
formidable title of "Rivington's New York Gazette, or the Connecticut, New
Jersey, Hudson's River and Quebec Weekly Advertiser." Rivington was the
royal printer during the Revolutionary War. He established the "New York
Royal Gazette" "published by James Rivington, Printer to the King's Most
Excellent Majesty." During the remaining five years of the war, Rivington's
paper was the most distinguished for its mendacities and its disloyalty to
America of all the Journals in the colonies.  It was published twice a week,
and four other newspapers were also published in the city at the same time
under the sanction of the British military command--one arranged for each
day, thus affording the advantage of a daily newspaper. By 1787 the title of
the paper had become simply "Rivington's New York Gazette and Universal

NEW  YORK  INDEPENDENT  JOURNAL or the General Advisor
       The last paper to start prior to the Revolutionary War. This paper
which bitterly opposed the administration of President Washington, changed
its title in 1788 to the "New York Gazette."  It was first published by
McLean and Webster, but was afterwards bought out by John Lang, Turner & Co.
It continued as late as 1840, having been edited in turn by John Lang and
subsequently by his son, John Lang, Jr. In 1840 its subscription list was
purchased by the "New York Journal of Commerce," in which year the "Gazette"
ceased to exist. John Lang, Jr., had died in March, 1836, in New York City.

          The first daily newspaper to be established in New York after the
Revolution was the "Minerva", first issued on December 9, 1793. Its founder
was Noah Webster, afterwards the eminent lexicographer, who, in entering
upon his career as a journalist, announced that his paper was to be "the
friend of Government, of freedom, of virtue, and of every species of
improvement." A weekly edition of the paper, published for circulation in
the country, was called the "Herald." It was not long, however, before the
names of "Minerva" and "Herald" were changed to those of the "Commercial
Advertiser" and "New York Spectator." The publishers were George Bunce &
Co., until May, 1796, when they gave place to Hopkins, Webster & Co. On July
1, 1799 , Webster separated from Hopkins & Co., and published the paper in
the name of his nephew, Ebenezer Belden, until 1803, when he sold out to
Zachariah Lewis. Mr. Lewis continued to be the chief editor until April,
1820, when he sold out the paper to Colonel William L. Stone and Francis
Hall--the former assuming the editorship, and the latter becoming the
Publisher. Colonel Stone at this time was an associate editor of the "New
York Evening Post," having previously been successively the editor and part
owner of the "Herkimer American," the "Northern Whig" at Hudson, New York,
the Albany "Daily Advertiser" and the Hartford Mirror."

          The "Commercial Advertiser" which, under Webster and Lewis had
always been a prominent organ of the Federalists, became, under Stone's
management, a staunch upholder of the principles of the Clintonians in
advocating the building of the Erie Canal. The "Commercial Advertiser" was
regarded as a kind of political barometer, and its signs were eagerly looked
for alike by friend and foe. While under Stone's editorship it was brought
into particular prominence by the fact together with the "Tribune," "The
American," edited by Dr. King, and "The Albany Evening Journal," controlled
by Thurlow Weed-it was made the defendant in the celebrated libel suits
brought by Fenimore Cooper. The case was tried in 1840, at Utica. On the
death of Colonel Stone his half interest was purchased by John B. Hall, the
son of his old partner; and John Inman, and afterwards Mr. West, an
Englishman, were successively employed by the Halls to edit the paper. On
the dissolution of the Whig party in 1856, the "Commercial Advertiser"
became a Republican organ. Upon the retirement of the Halls, father and son,
on January 1, 1863, the "Commercial Advertiser" passed into the hands of
William Henry Hurlbert, who for a short time was its editor. Thurlow Weed
became its next owner and editor.Going to Europe for his health, he left the
paper in charge of Hugh Hastings, a former editor of the "Albany
Knickerbocker," who had purchased a part interest in the concern. After many
changes of proprietorship following the death of Mr. Hastings, on September
12, 1883 it was carried on by Colonel John Cockerill, formerly managing
editor of the "New York World". A morning edition of the paper was issued
under the name of "The Morning Advertiser", which was short lived.

      The "Globe and Commercial Advertiser," as the evening paper was later
called, passed to the editorial control of Henry John Wright in 1897. He had
been on the staff of the morning edition, finally becoming city editor, and
on its discontinuance, entered the service of the New York "Evening Post" in
the same capacity, and as editor-in-chief, made the "Globe" the organ of
liberal thought in the afternoon field. Frank A. Munsey bought the "Globe"
in 1923, following the death of its chief owner, and merged it with the
"Sun" in order to give that paper an Associated Press franchise. Frank

          Frank A. Munsey's first journalistic venture, a newspaper of
relatively small importance, which he bought in 1890, renamed the "New York
Daily Continent," and soon discontinued.

          In 1891 Mr. Munsey bought the "Daily News" which had prospered as
representative of the Irish element in New York under Colonel Wood, and
continued to earn, a revenue under the management of his widow.  This
suspended publication in less than three years.

          The next morning paper of any permanence to be established in New
York was the "Journal of Commerce," its first issue was September 1, 1827.
Founded under the auspices of Arthur Tappan, its first editor was William
Maxwell, of Norfolk, Virginia, who had been brought to New York by Mr.
Tappan, and, with his brother Lewis, was at this time engaged in the
importation of dry goods at their store in Pearl Street.  It is said that
Arthur Tappan was so sure of the justice of his cause that he invested
$30,000 in the paper, a very handsome sum in those days. Arthur Tappan
eventually sold his interest to his brother Lewis, David Hale, and Horace
Bushnell, the last of whom in later years acquired a national reputation as
a writer on theology. In 1828 David Hale and Gerard Hallock, became the
proprietors--Hale assuming the duties of publisher, and Hallock of editor.
It was not long, before the "Journal of Commerce," from a strong
abolitionist paper began to veer again to the opposite side, becoming at
first conservative and finally a pro-slavery organ. The "Journal of
Commerce" was the first to employ the famous news schooners in 1829-30.
Previous to this time only rowboats had been used by any of the New York
papers, and of course, none were capable of going out to sea for news. The
enterprise of the "Journal" in sending a schooner into the broad Atlantic to
intercept vessels for news was ridiculed by its contemporaries. The result
of the first venture proved the sagacity of the proprietors of the
"Journal," and accordingly, as a next step, another schooner of nenety tons
was procured, and the two schooners were constantly cruising about either in
the harbor or out at sea for news from first vessel sighted. The other New
York newspapers were forced to combine and secure a small vessel to compete
with their more enterprising rival. The
excitement of the slavery question ran high in the fourth decade of the
century. A reward even of $50,000 was offered in New Orleans for the body of
Arthur Tappan, the abolitionist and former owner of the "Journal of
Commerce"; while another reward also was offered at the same time for the
body of his brother, Lewis Tappan, "formerly one of the Journal's
proprietors." As an outcome of this, the latter's house in New York was, in
1834, sacked by a mob. David Hale died in 1849. Hallock, the other
proprietor, remained chief editor of the "Journal" until September 1, 1861.
When Mr. Hallock retired in 1861 it was arranged that the paper should be
published by David M. Stone, who had for twelve years previously been its
business manager, beginning in 1849 as its commercial editor. In 1861 in
conjunction with William C. Prime, he purchased the interest of the paper,
succeeding the latter in 1866 as editor-in-chief an office that he retained
for many years. Mr. Stone was for a long time also president of the New York
Associated Press. What gave the "Journal of Commerce" much of its high
reputation was its "money article" which had the reputation of being written
without regard to selfish and pecuniary interests. For many years the
"Journal of Commerce" was in the possession of the Dodsworth family, who
developed it as a purely business organ, specializing in the news of
shipping, the primary markets, commodities in general, insurance, and the
dry goods trade. William C. Reich, became president of the company in 1916
and retained the editorship until his death. The paper was purchased in 1926
by Victor Ridder and his brothers, who had inherited from their father the
ownership of the "Staats Zeitung," . In 1927 the Ridders purchased and
merged with the "Journal of Commerce," the New York "Commercial," a business daily.

          The first newspaper to be sold in New York at the price of one
cent, was the "New Yorker",  which was established in 1833 by Horatio David
Shepherd, with Horace Greeley and Francis V. Stoney as partners, printers
and publishers. This was the pioneer newspaper of the one cent press; though
it lasted no longer than four weeks.

      The "New York Sun" was first published on September 3, 1833, at 222
William street, as a one-cent paper and Benjamin H. Day, the publisher,
announced his intention to lay before the public, at a price with the means
of everyone, all the news of the day, and at the same time afford an advaous
means of advertising. The subscription price if paid in advance was $3.00
each year. The success of the paper was immediate, especially among the
poorly paid working classes of the period, who could not afford and had
little inclination for reading the pretentious six-penny papers of the
period. The paper soon became a recognized medium for "want ads," which not
only brought increased income, but a longer list of subscribers. A
circulation of 27,000 was claimed in August, 1836, and in 1838 the paper was
sold for $40,000 to Moses Yale Beach. After 1868 Charles A. Dana became the
moving power on the paper. In 1880 Chester B. Lord succeeded and
successfully managed the paper till 1912.

          An amalgamation of the "New York Herald" and the "New York
Tribune." The "Tribune" was long noted as the mouthpiece of Horace Greeley.
It was first published on April 10, 1841 at the price of one cent a copy.
Its. aim, as announced by its publisher, was "to print the information daily
required by all those who aim to keep posted on every important occurrence,
so that the lawyer, the merchant, the banker, the forwarder, the economist,
the author, the politican, etc. may find whatever he needs to see."  In 1845
the building at Nassau and Spruce streets, to which the "Tribune" had moved
from 30 Ann Street, was burned down, but was immediately rebuilt, and the
paper was published at this address until 1923, when it moved to new
quarters on West Fortieth Street. Whitelaw Reid, who had been connected with
the paper for four years previously, and he continued at the head of the
paper till 1913, when his son, Ogden M. Reid, succeeded, purchasing in 1924
the "Herald" from Mr. Munsey and amalgamating the two papers. The "Herald"
had been first published as a penny paper in 1835 by James Gordon
Bennett..In 1871 the "Herald" achieved world-wide fame by the expedition,
under Henry M. Stanley, it sent to search for David Livingstone, the
explorer, who had been three years lost in the wilds of Africa. The elder
Bennett died in 1872, and was succeeded in the control of the paper by his
son, James Gordon Bennett II. In 1899 wireless was used to report the
America cup races, and in October, 1906, wireless was used to broadcast news
of the world series of baseball games, and around the world wireless ship
news was established from the "Herald" office on January 17, 1917. When Mr.
Bennett died on January 17, 1917, the "Herald" was heavily in debt. Frank A.
Munsey bought it for $1,000,000 in cash and $3,000,000 in notes. Under the
proprietorship of Frank A. Munsey, the "Herald" continued to shrink in
prestige and importance until its sale to the "Tribune".

          Has a good deal of history behind it. It was founded in 1851 by
Henry J. Raymond, George Jones, and E.B. Wesley. Its editor, Henry J.
Raymond, had received his journalistic training under Horace Greeley, and
had been Lieutenant-Governor of the State of New York. After the Civil War
the paper advocated a policy of reconciliation as opposed to reconstruction.
Under the editorship of Louis J. Jennings the paper exposed the Tweed ring.
The Star Route exposure in 1881, and the thwarting of Jay Gould's attempt to
gain control of the Manhattan Elevated Railway by the paper excited
Nation-wide interest.  Charles R. Miller was editor from 1883 till his
death, in 1922. In 1894 a complete change was made in the policy of the
paper. It had been Republican, but supported Cleveland in preference to
Blaine. In 1896, after some years of decline, the paper passed under the
control of Adolph S. Ochs, an editor from Chattanooga, Tennessee.
Politically its policy remained as before, an independent, conservative
newspaper, but with a Democratic tone. Though the paper is conservative in
public affairs, there has in recent years been no lack of progressiveness
shown in its management. New features, such as a full daily court calendar
to recommend it to lawyers, and a department of business to recommend it to
business men, were added. In 1896 a Saturday review of books was started,
but this was later transferred to the Sunday issue. In 1897 a weekly
financial review was issued as a Monday supplement and continued till 1913.
Foreign news had always received more attention in the "Times" than in the
average New York newspaper of pre-war days, but this department was further
strengthened, especially after the
introduction of wireless telegraphy, in the use of which the "Times" was a
pioneer. The first "Times" building had been in the triangle between Park
Row, Beekman and Nassau streets. A larger building, which still stands,
replaced it in 1888, but was becoming too small for the growth of the
business. Mr. Ochs planned another triangular building at Broadway,
Forty-second Street and Seventh Avenue, which remained the paper's home
until it too was outgrown, and the larger plant was erected in West
Forty-third Street known as the "Times" Annex.

          It first appeared on June 14, 1860, as an eight-page paper, and
had the backing of strong capital. Alexander Cummings, editor of the
Philadelphia "North American", was head of the enterprise, which had its
home at the corner of Park Row and Beekman Street. After $200,000 had been
sunk the business passed into other hands, and the "World" was made into a
real newspaper. The "World" changed hands many times and had reached its
lowest ebb, entailing a loss of $100,000 a year merely to keep it alive,
when it was bought by Joseph Pulitzer. He took charge in May, 1883, and
announced that the "World," under his management would be entirely
different: "There is room in this great and growing city for a journal that
is not only cheap but bright, not only bright but large, not only large but
truly democratic; one dedicated to the cause of the people, rather than that
of purse potentates; devoted more to the news of the New than Old World;
that will expose all fraud and sham, fight all public evils and abuses, and
that will serve and battle for the people with earnest sincerity." Success
was immediate and the circulation jumped from 15,000 to 200,000 in two
years. The corner stone of the World Building, at Park Row and Frankfort
Street, notable for its gilded dome, was laid on October 10, 1889. When the
building was completed on November 10, 1890, the average daily circulation
of the paper had reached 316, 636. When the elder Pulitzer died, in 1911,
the "World" and the "Post-Dispatch" came under the control of the sons,
Ralph and Joseph and Herbert Pulitzer.

          In 1896 William Randolph Hearst became a prominent figure in New
York journalism. He founded the "New York Evening Journal" in 1896, after
having, in 1895, purchased the "Morning Journal," which he made into the
"New York American."  In 1924 the "New York American" had become the only
widely circulating paper in the city selling regularly at three cents and
ten cents for the Sunday edition, which had a declared circulation of
1,100,000 copies. 

          It was founded in 1882 by two newspaper men from Providence,
Charles H. Dow and Edward D. Jones. Thomas F. Woodlock and Charles M.
Bergstresser soon joined them, and William P. Hamilton became
editor-in-chief. They had received their training in the
pioneer financial news agency of New York, which had been established by
John J. Kiernan. From an office located in a basement at 24 Broad Street
they issued their daily bulletin of the latest news of "The Street", in
competition with a dozen or more other financial news agencies soon taking
the lead in the field because of the regularity and reliability of their
reports. In 1902 Clarence W. Barron, who had made a reputation as financial
editor of the "Boston Transcript" purchased the entire interest of the Dow,
Jones & Company, thus bringing to the "Journal" organization his knowledge
of corporation and railroad finance and the force of his long years of personal
service in the collection and distribution of financial news. The "Journal"
is located within a block of the Stock Exchange. It has a staff of sixty
people who gather news in the financial district. A hundred reporters
represent the "Journal" in the large American Cities and twforeign
correspondents communicate with the paper in different parts of the world.

      The Wall Street News, first issued in 1893 as the "Wall Street
Summary," was developed by James Rascover and Colin Armstrong, assisted by
Melvin J Woodworth. In 1903 the name was changed to "Financial America," and
the following year Mr. Woodworth, becoming sole owner, changed the name
again to the "Wall Street News." This company owns a ticker service, the
Central News, Ltd., of London, and the Central News Company of America.

          First in the field of Tabloid press was the New York "Daily News",
an experiment on the part of the owners of the Chicago "Tribune", which
proved an instant success. Its daily circulation for the six months ending
in September, 1926, was 1,082,976. It gave more space to illustrations than
to text, and disregard the news standards of the older dailies, featuring
"human interest" rather than routine news.

          The highest priced daily nespaper in the world, which sells at 10
cents, and in 1927 had an average circulation of almost 50,000. Founded by
T. Oakey Hall, who was Mayor of New York, 1869-72, it caters to the
theatrical and sporting classes, and is a mirror of Broadway life and
thought. For many years owned by the late William C. Whitney, it passed to
E.R. Thomas, a wealthy sporting man, and was controlled in 1927 by his
widow, who announced it to be her intention to devote five years to an
attempt to make it one of the leading newspapers of America, and who
declined to sell at a handsome price.

          Of the more serious weeklies the first in age and importance was
that issued by Messrs. Harper & Brothers, now only a memory to most New
Yorkers, but still useful to the student of men and manners, and accessible
in the collections of the larger libraries. "Harper's Weekly was an
illustrated publication when illustrations cost money, for every picture
used must first be drawn, and then engraved by hand. For many years the
editor was George William Curtis, who brought "Harper's Weekly" to a plane
of distinction as to both text and illustrations which it never surpassed.
The most famous of the cartoonists engaged was Thomas Nast, who, as already
recorded, contributed materially to the overthrow of Boss Tweed. But the
House of Harper had fallen upon evil days. J.P. Morgan & Company undertook
its rehabilitation, and in 1900 placed George B. Harvey, then managing
editor  of the New York "World," at the head of its affairs as president of
the company. Mr. Harvey assumed the editorship of "Harper's Weekly" and
contributed signed editorials, but left the bulk of the direction to George
Buchanan Fife, as managing editor.

          The most formidable early rival of "Harper's Weekly,"
waestablished by Frank Leslie, a versatile and accomplished Englishman, who
created a chain of popular publication in New York, in most of which he was
succeeded by his widow, who later called herself Baroness de Bazus, and
died in 1914, leaving a large fortune to Mrs. Carrie C. Catt for use in the
suffrage cause. In the early nineties possession was acquired by John A.
Sleicher, a Troy, New York, newspaperman, who also took over "Judge," and
became president of the "Leslie-Judge Company."


          Edited for a quarter of a century, almost the sum of its
existence, by Abraham Cahan, the novelist of East Side life. It has a roto
section and an English supplement on Sundays, owns a fine building with
modern equipment, and represents the Socialist Right Wing. The circulation
is 150,000. Other dailies printed in Yiddish are the "Day-Warheit," the Jewish
"Daily News" and the Jewish "Morning Journal".

          One of the oldest Italian dailies, has long been edited by Cav.
Carlo Barsotti, and attained a daily circulation in 1927 of 81,118, Sunday,

          Had a daily circulation slightly less than 100,000, and a Sunday
circulation of more than 100,000, absorbed its chief competitor the
"Herold," during the World War period, becoming the "Staats-Zeitung-Herold."
It was founded in 1834 and is still owned by the Ridder family, also
referred to above as the present owners of the  "Journal of Commerce."

          It is edited by H. P. Sampers, whose family has always owned it,
and its literary qualities are naturally of the highest.

There are four publications in Arabic, two in Chinese, , one in
Japanese, three in Polish, five in Russian, four in Hungarian, including two
dailies. Last, but not least in importance, there is "La Prensa," an
excellent daily in Spanish.


1.   "Sunday Courier", in 1835 was the first Sunday paper published.
2.   Telegraph
3.   Sunday Morning News
4.   Morning Courier and New York Enquirer-Mordecai Noah.
5.   Noah's Sunday Times and Weekly Messenger
6.   Evening Telegram
7.   "Graphic"- founded by Bernarr Macfadden. Tabloid
8.   "Mirror"- Tabloid newspaper.

                          *   *   *   *   *

Brooklyn has four important dailies which, in point of quality and
circulation, are comparable to those published in Manhattan Island.

          Edited by Arthur M. Howe, was long the organ of liberal Democracy.
For a brief time Walt Whitman was the editor. Then St. Clair McKelway, who
had won his spurs in Albany was the editor for nearly a third of a century,
and until his death.

          The "Standard Union," on which Murat Halsted closed his
journalistic career, is the Republican organ of Kings County. Owned by
William C. Berri, it has been ably edited by John A. Halton for forty years.
His training was received under Henry J. Raymond, of the New York "Times."
In 1927 the company was reorganized, new capital put in, and Joseph J.
Early, who entered the paper's service as a reporter in 1902, became
president of the company.

          The Brooklyn "Citizen" has always been the organ of the Democratic
leaders in Kings County. For many years it was edited by Andrew McLean, who
was succeeded by Solon Barbanell.

          The spokesman for the Eastern District of Brooklyn and nearby
regions of Long Island, was founded by the Bryants, and had the benefit of
early guidance from William Cullen Bryant himself. For many years John N.
Harmon has been both editor and general manager, and Clarence A. Hebb,
managing editor.

          Dailies in other boroughs of the greater city include the Long
Island City "Star," the Flushing "Journal," the Jamaica "Long Island Press,"
the Staten Island "Advance," the Bronx "Home News" and "North Side News."

Source:  History of New York State 1523-1927
Publisher:  Lewis Historical Publishing Company, Inc.-New York, Chicago.
Copyright:  1927   Volume I and V

               Researched, Prepared and Transcribed
                            By Miriam Medina