Corner Centre and Walker Streets  1916


Haven Emerson, M.D.  (Commissioner of Health)
John S. Billings, M.D.  (Deputy Commissioner
Leland E. Cofer, M.D.  (Health Officer of the Port)
Arthur Woods  (Commissioner of Police

ME D I C A L   A D V I S O R Y   B O A R D
T. Mitchell Prudden, M.D.,
Abraham Jacobi, M.D.
William M. Polk, M.D.
John Winters Brannan, M.D.
L. Emmett Holt, M.D.
Simon Flexner, M.D.,
G. R. Butler, M.D.
W. B. James, M.D.
H. M. Biggs, M.D.
Francis Carter Wood

Borough of The Bronx,  3731 Third avenue
Borough of Brooklyn,  Flatbush avenue and Willoughby street
Borough of Queens,  372-374 Fulton street, Jamaica, L.I.
Borough of Richmond  514-516 Bay street,Stapleton, S.I.

 Office Hours:  9 a.m. to 5 p.m. Saturday, 9 a.m. to 12 m.

Manhattan-  Willard parker Hospital, foot of E. 16th st.
The Bronx-  Riverside Hospital,  North Brother Island.
Brooklyn-  Kingston Avenue Hospital,  Kingston avenue
                  and Fenimore street.

Diagnosis Laboratory, Center and Walker sts.
Serological Laboratory, Center and Walker sts.
Research Laboratory, Chemical Laboratory.  Vaccine
         Laboratory. Drug Laboratory. Foot of E. 16th st.

Manhattan-  	Center and Walker sts.  
				Week days, 9 to 10am 307 W. 33rd st. 
				Wednesdays, 8 to 9p.m.

Brooklyn-  		29 3d avenue. Week days, 9 to 11am Tuesdays & Fridays 8 to 9pm.

Manhattan-  	Center and Walker sts.  Week days,  1 to 4p.m.
Brooklyn-   	29 3d avenue.  Week days,  10 a.m. to 1 p.m.
The Bronx - 	3d avenue and St. Paul's pl. Week days, 11a.m. to 1 p.m.
Queens--		Cases attend Manhattan or Brooklyn Clinics on Week Days.
Richmond--		Cases attend Manhattan Clinics on Week Days.
     			Note:  Sundays and Holidays all cases attend Brooklyn Clinic, 10am to 12p.m.

Manhattan--		 West Side Clinic,  307 W. 33d street.
                 Lower East Side Clinic, 111 E. 10th street
                 Middle East Side Clinic, 229 E. 57th street
                 Harlem Italian Clinic, 420 E. 116th street
                 Southern Italian Clinic, 22 Vandam street
       			 Day Camp, Ferryboat "Middletown," ft of 91st street

The Bronx--		 Northern Clinic,  St. Pauls pl. and 3d avenue
                 Southern Clinic, 493 East 139th st.

Brooklyn--       Main Clinic, Fleet and Willoughby sts.
                 Germantown Clinic,  55 Sumner avenue
                 Brownsville Clinic,  64 Pennsylvania avenue.
Eastern District Clinic,  306 S. 5th street,Williamsburg.
                 Bay Ridge Clinic,  215 60th street
                 Parkville Clinic,  974 West Street
   				 Day Camp, Ferryboat "Rutherford," foot of Fulton street

Queens--		 Jamaica Clinic,  10 Union avenue, Jamaica
                 Flushing,  112 Broadway, Flushing.

Richmond--		 Richmond Clinic, Bay and Elizabeth streets, Stapleton

Otisville, Orange County, N.Y. (via Erie Railroad from Jersey City).

    Maintained by the Department of Health, the Department of Public
Charities, and Bellevue and Allied Hospitals,  
426 1st avenue. Hours 9 5 p.m. Telephone,  8667 Madison Square.

1.  All physicians practising in the City of New York (Including those in
public institutions) must be registered with the Department of Health.

2. An attending physician must furnish a certificate of death within
thirty-six hours after the death of the patient, or, if death be due to a
contagious or infectious disease, forthwith.

3. If a person dies from criminal violence, or by a casualty, or suddenly
when in apparent health, or when unattended by a physician, or in prison, or
in any suspicious or unusual manner, the case must be referred to a Coroner.

4.  It shall be the duty of every physician to report to the Department of
Health, in writing, the full name, age, and address of every person
suffering from any infectious diseases within twenty-four hours of the time
when the case is first seen.

5.  Physicians must report births occurring in their practice within ten
days after the event.

6.  Every physician must preserve a duplicate record of every death and
birth so reported.

7.  Certificates of death will be returned for additional information which
give any of the following diseases, without explanation, as the sole cause
of death; Abortion, Cellulitis, Childbirth, Convulsions, Erysipelas,
Gangrene, Gastritis, Haemorrhage, Meningitis, Metritis, Miscarriage,
Peritonitis, Phlebitis, Pyaemia, Septicaemia, Tetanus. (Any one of these may
be the result of an injury, and thus be a subject for investigation by a
Coroner. If it is not, the certificate should make that fact plain.)

8.  No certificate will be accepted which gives a mere sympton as the sole
cause of death, such as "asphyxia," "debility," "dropsy," "heart failure,"
etc. unless accompanied by a satisfatory written explanation.

9.  Certificates containing palpable errors of names, dates, etc., which are
illegible will be returned, and a new certificate required, as no
corrections, erasures, or interlineations will be permitted. (These
certificates are permanent records of great legal importance, and it is
necessary that they should show upon the face that they are original records
and have not been tampered with.)

10. All changes of address and discontinuance of treatment on the part of
their consumptive patients are to be reported promptly to the Department of
Health once a month.

11.  All necessary precautions must be taken to prevent the spread of the
disease, e.g., isolation and quarantine in cases of cerebro-spinal
meningitis, acute poliomyelitis, disinfection of typhoid excreta and of
tuberculosis sputum.

12.  It shall be the duty of every undertaker having notice of the death of
any person within the City of New York of small-pox, diphtheria (croup),
scarlet fever, yellow fever, typhus fever, plague, Asiatic cholera, measles,
or any other infectious disease dangerous to the general health of the
community, or of the bringing of the dead body of any person who has died of
any such disease into such city, to give immediate notice thereof to this
Department. No person shall retain or expose, or assist in the retention or
exposure of the dead body of any such person except in a coffin or casket
properly sealed; nor shall he allow any such body to be placed in any coffin
or casket unless the body has been wrapped in a sheet saturated with a
proper disinfecting solution, and the coffin or casket shall then be
immediately and permanently sealed. No undertaker shall assist in the public
or church funeral of any such person. No undertaker shall use, or cause or
allow to be used, at any funeral, or in any room where the dead body of any
person shall be, any draperies, decorations, rugs or carpets, belonging to
or furnished by him or under his direction.

13.  A public or church funeral shall not be held of any person who has died
of small-pox, diphtheria (croup) scarlet fever, yellow fever, typhus fever,
Asiatic cholera, measles, or plague; but the funeral of such person shall be
private, and it shall not be lawful to invite, or permit at the funeral of
any person who has died of any one  of the above diseases, or of any
infectious disease, or at any services connected therewith, any person whose
attendance is not necessary, or to whom there is danger of contagion.

(Adopted by the Medical Society of the State of New York, May 10,1906.)



Section I.      Physicians should not only be ever ready to obey the calls
of the sick and the injured, but should be mindful of the high character of
their mission and of the responsibilities they must incur in the discharge
of momentous duties. In their ministrations they should never forget that
the comfort, the health, and the lives of those entrusted to their care
depend on skill, attention and fidelity. In deportment they should unite
tenderness, cheerfulness and firmness, and thus inspire all sufferers with
gratitude, respect and confidence. These observances are the more sacred
because, generally, the only tribunal to adjudge penalties for unkindness,
carelessness or neglect is their own conscience.

Section 2.      Every patient committed to the charge of a physician should
be treated with attention and humanity, and reasonable indulgence should be
granted to the caprices of the sick.  Secrecy and delicacy should be
strictly observed; and the familiar and confidential intercourse to which
physicians are admitted, in their professional visits, should be guarded
with the most scrupulous fidelity and honor.

Section 3.      The obligation of secrecy extends beyond the period of
professional services; none of the privacies of individual or domestic life,
no infirmity of disposition or flaw of character observed during medical
attendance, should ever be divulged by physicians, except when imperatively
required by the laws of the State. The force of the obligation of secrecy is
so great that physicians have been protected in its observance  by courts of

Section 4.      Frequent visits to the sick are often requisite, since they
enable the physician to arrive at a more perfect knowledge of the disease,
and to meet promptly every change which may occur. Unnecessary visits are to
be avoided, as they give undue anxiety to the patient; but to secure the
patient against irritating suspense and disappointment the regular and
periodical visits of the physician should be made as nearly as possible at
the hour when they may be reasonably expected by the patient.

Section 5.      Ordinarily, the physician should not be forward to make
gloomy prognostications, but should not fail, on proper occasions, to give
timely notice of dangerous manifestations to the friends of the patient; and
even to the patient, if absolutely necessary. This notice, however, is at
times so peculiarly alarming when given by the physician that its
deliverance may often be preferably assigned to another person of good

Section 6:      The physician should be a minister of hope and comfort to
the sick, since life may be lengthened or shortened not only by the acts but
by the words or manner of the physician, whose solemn duty is to avoid all
utterances and actions having a tendency to discourage and depress the

Section 7:      The medical attendant ought not to abandon a patient because
deemed incurable; for continued attention may be highly useful to the
sufferer and comforting to the relatives, even in the last period of the
fatal malady, by alleviating pain and by soothing mental anguish.

Section 8:      The opportunity which a physician has of promoting and
strengthening the good resolutions of patients suffering under the
consequences of evil conduct ought never to be neglected. Good counsels, or
even remonstrances, will give satisfaction, not offense, if they be
tactfully proffered and evince a genuine love of virtue, accompanied by a
sincere interest in the welfare of the person to whom they are addressed.



ARTICLE I   Duties for the Support of Professional Character.

Section I:
      Every one on entering the profession, and thereby becoming entitled to
full professional fellowship, incurs an obligation to uphold its dignity and
honor, to exalt its standing and to extend the bounds of its usefulness. It
is inconsistent with the principles of medical science and it is
incompatible with honorable standing in the profession for physicians to
designate their practice as based on an exclusive dogma or a sectarian
system of medicine.

Section 2:
      The physician should observe strictly such laws as are instituted for
the government of the members of the profession; should honor the fraternity
as a body; should endeavor to promote the science and art of medicine and
should entertain a due respect for those seniors who, by their labors, have
contributed to its advancement.

Section 3:
      Every physician should identify himself with the organized body of his
profession as represented in the community in which he resides. The
organization of local or county medical societies, where they do not exist,
should be effected, so far as practicable. Such county societies,
constituting as they do the chief element of strength in the organization of
the profession, should have the active support of their members and should
be made instruments for the cultivation of fellowship, for the exchange of
professional experience, for the advancement of medical knowledge, for the
maintenance of ethical standards, and for the promotion in general of the
interests of the profession and the welfare of the public.

Section 4:
      All county medical societies thus organized ought to place themselves
in affiliation with their respective State associations, and these, in turn,
with the American Medical Association.

Section 5:
      There is no profession from the members of which greater purity of
character and a higher standard of moral excellence are required than the
medical; and to attain such eminence is a duty every physician owes alike to
the profession and to the patients. It is due to the patients, as without it
their respect and confidence cannot be commanded; and to the profession,
because no scientific attainments can compensate for the want of correct
moral principles.

Section 6:
     It is incumbent on physicians to be temperate in all things, for the
practice of medicine requires the unremitting exercise of a clear and
vigorous understanding; and in emergencies for which no physician should be
unprepared a steady hand, an acute eye and an unclouded mind are essential
to the welfare and even to the life of a human being.

Section 7:
      It is incompatible with honorable standing in the profession to resort
to public advertisement or private cards inviting the attention of persons
affected with particular diseases; to promise radical cures;  to publish
cases or operations in the daily prints, or to suffer such publications to
be made; to invite laymen (other than relatives who may desire to be at
hand) to be present at operations; to boast of cures and remedies;  to
adduce certificates of skill and success, or to employ, any of the other
methods of charlatans.

Section 8:
       It is equally derogatory to professional character for physicians to
hold patents for any surgical instrument or medicines; to accept rebates on
prescriptions or surgical appliances; to assist unqualified persons to evade
the legal restrictions governing the practice of medicine; or to dispense,
or promote the use of, secret medicines, for if such nostrums are of real
efficacy, any concealment regarding them is inconsistent with beneficence
and professional liberality, and of mystery alone gives them public
notoriety, such craft implies either disgraceful ignorance or fraudulent
avarice. It is highly reprehensible for physicians to give certificates
attesting the efficacy of secret medicines, or other substances used

ARTICLE  II  Professional Services of Physicians to Each Other.

Section I
      Physicians should not, as a general rule, undertake the treatment  of
themselves, nor of members of their family. In such circumstances they are
peculiarly dependent on each other; therefore, kind offices and professional
aid should always be cheerfully and gratuitously afforded. These visits
ought not, however, to be obtrusively made, as they may give rise to
embarrassment or interfere with that free choice on which such confidence depends.

Section 2:
      All practising physicians and their immediate family dependents are
entitled to the gratuitous services of any one or more of the physicians
residing near them.

Section 3:
      When a physician is summoned from a distance to the bedside of a
colleague in easy financial circumstances, a compensation, proportionate to
traveling esxpenses and to the pecuniary loss entailed by absence from the
accustomed field of professional labor, should be made by the patient or relatives.

Section 4:
    When more than one physician is attending another, one of the number
should take charge of the case, otherwise the concert of thought and action
so essential to wise treatment cannot be assured.

Section 5:
     The affairs of life, the pursuit of health, and the various accidents
and contingencies to which a physician is peculiarly exposed sometimes
require the temporary withdrawal of this physician from daily professional
labaor and the appointment of a colleague to act for a specified time. The
colleague's compliance is an act of courtesy which should always be
performed with the utmost consideration for the interest and character of
the family physician.

ARTICLE:  III   The Duties of Physicians In Regard To Consultations.

Section 1
      The broadest dictates of humanity should be obeyed by physicians
whenever and wherever their services are needed to meet the emergencies of
disease or accident.

Section 2:
      Consultations should be promoted in difficult cases, as they
contribute to confidence and more enlarged views of practice.

Section 3:
      The utmost punctuality should be observed in the visits of physicians
when they are to hold consultations, and this is generally practicable, for
society has been so considerate as to allow the plea for a professional
engagement to take precedence over all others.

Section 4:
    As professional engagements may sometimes cause delay in attendance, the
physician who first arrives should wait for a reasonable time, after which
the consultation should be considered as postponed to a new appointment.

Section 5:
      In consultations no insincerity, rivalry or envy should be indulged;
candor, probity and all due respect should be observed toward the physician
in charge of the case.

Section 6:
      No statement or discussion of the case should take place before the
patient or friends, except in the presence of all the physicians attending,
or by their common consent; and no opinions or prognostications should be
delivered which are not the result of previous deliberations and

Section 7:
      No decision should restrain the attending physician from making such
subsequent variations in the mode of treatment as any unexpected change in
the character of the case may demand. But at the next consultation reasons
for the variations should  be stated. The same privilege, with its
obligation, belongs to the consultant when sent for in an emergency during
the absence of the family physician.

Section 8:
      The attending physician, at any time, may prescribe for the patient;
not so the consultant, when alone, except in a case of emergency or when
called from a considerable distance. In the first instance the consultant
should do what is needed, and in the second should do no more than make an
examination of the patient and leave a written opinion, under seal, to be
delivered to the attending physician.

Section 9:
      All discussions in consultation should be held as confidential.
Neither by words nor by manner should any of the participants in a
consultation assert or intimate that any part of the treatment pursued did
not receive his assent.

Section 10:
      It may happen that two physicians cannot agree in their views of the
nature of a case and of the treatment to be pursued. In the event of such
disagreement a third physician should, if practicable, be called in. None
but the rarest and most exceptional circumstances would justify the
consultant in taking charge of the case. He should not do so merely on the
solicitation of the patient or friends.

Section 11:
      A physician who is called in consultation should observe the most
honorable and scrupulous regard for the character and standing of the
attending physician, whose conduct of the case should be justified, as far
as can be, consistently with a conscientious regard for truth, and no hint
or insinuation should be thrown out which would impair the confidence
reposed in the attending physician.

ARTICLE  IV:   Duties of Physicians In Cases Of Interference.

Section 1:
      Medicine being a liberal profession, those admitted to its ranks
should found their expectations of practice especially on the character and
the extent of their medical education.

Section 2:
      The physician, in the intercourse with a patient under the care of
another physician, should observe the strictest caution and reserve; should
give no disingenuous hints relative to the nature and treatment of the
patient's disorder; nor should the course of conduct of the physician,
directly or indirectly, tend to diminish the trust reposed in the attending

Section 3:
      The same circumspection should be observed when, from motives of
business of friendship, a physician is prompted to visit a person who is
under the direction of another physician. Indeed, such visits should be
avoided, except under peculiar circumstances, and, when they are made no
inquiries should be instituted relative to the nature of the disease, or the
remedies employed, but the topics of conversation should be as foreign to
the case as circumstances will admit.

Section 4:
      A physician ought not to take charge of , nor prescribe for, a patient
who has recently been under the care of another physician, in the same
illness, except in case of a sudden emergency, or in consultation with the
physician previously in attendance, or when that physician has relinquished
the case or has been dismissed in due form.

Section 5:
     The physician acting in conformity with the preceding section should
not make damaging insinuations regarding the practice previously adopted,
and, indeed, should justify it if consistent with truth and probity; for it
often happens that patients become dissatisfied when they are not
immediately relieved, and, as many diseases are naturally protracted, the
seeming want of success, in the first stage of treatment, affords no
evidence of a lack of professional knowledge or skill.

Section 6:
      When a physician is called to an urgent case, because the family
attendant is not at hand, unless assistance in consultation is desired, the
former should resign the care of the patient immediately on the arrival of
the family physician.

Section 7:
      It often happens, in cases of sudden illness, and of accidents and
injuries, owing to the alarm and anxiety of friends, that several physicians
are simultaneously summoned. Under these circumstances, courtesy should
assign the patient to the first who arrives, and who, if necessary, may
invoke the aid of some of those present. In such cases, however, the acting
physician should request that the family physician be called, and should
withdraw unless requested to continue in attendance.

Section 8:
      Whenever a physician is called to the patient of another physician
during the enforced absence of that physician, the case should be
relinquished on the return of the latter.

Section 9:
       A physician, while visiting a sick person in the country, may be
asked to see another physician's patient because of a sudden aggravation of
the disease. On such an occasion the immediate needs of the patient should
be attended to and the case relinquished on the arrival of the attending

Section 10:
      When a physician who has been engaged to attend an obstetric case is
absent and another is sent for, delivery being accomplished during the
vicarious attendance, the acting physician is entitled to the professional
fee, but must resign the patient on the arrival of the physician first

ARTICLE  V:    Differences Between Physicians

Section 1.
      Diversity of opinion and opposition of interest may, in the medical as
in other professions, sometimes occasion controversy and even contention.
Whenever such unfortunate cases occur and cannot be immediately adjusted,
they should be referred to the arbitration of a sufficient number of
impartial physicians.

Section 2:
      A peculiar reserve must be maintained by physicians toward the public
in regard to some professional questions, and as there exist many points in
medical ethics and etiquette through which the feelings of physicians my be
painfully assailed in their intercourse, and which cannot be understood or
appreciated by general society, neither the subject-matter of their
differences nor the adjudication of the arbitrators should be made public.

ARTICLE  VI:    Compensation

Section 1.
      By the members of no profession are eleemosynary services more
liberally dispensed than by the medical, but justice requires that some
limits hould be placed to their performance. Poverty, mutual professional
obligations, and certain of the public duties named in Sections 1 and 2 of
Chapter III should always be recognized as presenting valid claims for
gratuitous services; but neither institutions endowed by the public or by
the rich, or by societies for mutual benefit, for life insurance, or for
analogous purposes, nor any profession or occupation can be admitted to
possess such privilege.

Section 2:
      It cannot be justly expected of physicians to furnish certificates of
inability to serve on juries, or to perform militia duty; to testify to the
state of health of persons wishing to insure their lives, obtain pensions,
or the like, without due compensation, but to persons in indigent
circumstances such services should always be cheerfully and freely accorded.

Section 3:
      Some general rules hould be adopted by the physicians in every town or
district relative to the minimum pecuniary acknowledgment from their
patients; and it should be deemed a point of honor to adhere to these rules
with as much uniformity as varying circumstances will admit.

Section 4:
      It is derogatory to professional character for physicians to pay or
offer to pay commissions to any person whatsoever who may recommend to them
patients requiring general or special treatment or surgical operations. It
is equally derogatory to professional character for physicians to solicitor
to receive such commissions.


Section 1.
      As good citizens it is the duty of physicians to be very vigilant for
the welfare of the community, and to bear their part in sustaining its laws,
institutions and burdens; especially should they be ready to co-operate with
the proper authorities in the administration and the observance of sanitary
laws and regulations, and they should also be ever ready to give counsel to
the public in relation to subjects especially appertaining to their
profession, as on questions of sanitary police, public hygiene and legal

Section 2:
      It is the province of physicians to enlighten the public in regard to
quarantine regulations; to the location, arrangement and dietaries of
hospitals, asylums, schools, prisons and similar institutions; in regard to
measures for the prevention of epidemic and contagious diseases; and, when
pestilence prevails, it is their duty to face the danger, and to continue
their labors for the alleviation of the suffering people, even at the risk
of their own lives.

Section 3:
      Physicians, when called on by legally constituted authorities, should
always be ready to enlighten inquests and courts of justice on subjects
strictly medical, such as involve questions relating to sanity, legitimacy,
murder by poison or other violent means, and various other subjects embraced
in the science of medical jurisprudence. It is but just, however, for them
to expect due compensation for their services.

Section 4:
      It is the duty of physicians, who are frequent witnesses of the great
wrongs committed by charlatans, and of the injury to health and even
destruction of life caused by the use of their treatment, to enlighten the
public on these subjects, and to make known the injuries sustained by the
unwary from the devices and pretensions of artful impostors.

Section 5:
      It is the duty of physicians to recognize and by legitimate patronage
to promote the profession of pharmacy, on the skill and proficiency of which
depends the reliability of remedies, but any pharmacist who, although
educated in his own profession, is not a qualified physician, and who
assumes to prescribe for the sick, ought not to receive such countenance and
support. Any druggist or pharmacist who dispenses deteriorated or
sophisticated drugs or who substitutes one remedy for another designated in
a prescription ought thereby to forfeit the recognition and influence of physicians.

This completes the total transcribing of  "Principles of Medical Ethics." as
listed in its entirety on Pages: 685-689 of the Medical Directory of New
York, New Jersey and Connecticut-1916.

Source:  The Medical Directory of New York, New Jersey and Connecticut
Publisher:  The Medical Society of the State of New York
Volume  XVIII  Copyright:  1916

Transcribed by Miriam Medina